de1ux

Nathan Evans is learning how to blog in 2018 2019

Kubernetes client-go: Updating and rolling back a deployment

11/23/2018

WARNING

All of this was written during version 6.0 of the Kubernetes client. The information here may be out of date: ymmv

Picking the right Kubernetes client version

Kubernetes provides an excellent compatibility matrix to help target the right client version for communicating with the cluster.

Don’t worry about picking a minor version higher than your current Kubernetes API minor version; I targeted two versions ahead of the API server and all tested out well.

Do worry if you plan on exercising non-core/alpha client features that your cluster might not support.

Installing k8s.io/client-go

Currently, the client does not play well with dep, but the authors have done a great writeup about the install options currently available.

Here’s a quick and dirty build script ganked from their INSTALL.md:

$ go get -v github.com/tools/godep
$ go get -v k8s.io/client-go/...
$ pushd $GOPATH/src/k8s.io/client-go
$ git checkout v6.0.0
$ godep restore ./...
$ popd

Create a Kubernetes clientset

It’s likely you have a $HOME/.kube/config already from playing with kubectl and minikube, making it trivial to generate a client (or as Kubernetes calls it, a clientset).

config, err := clientcmd.BuildConfigFromFlags("", filepath.Join(homedir.HomeDir(), ".kube", "config"))
if err != nil {
    panic(err)
}

clientSet, err := kubernetes.NewForConfig(config)
if err != nil {
    panic(err)
}

Getting an existing deployment

Before we start a new deployment, we first need to assert that an existing deployment is running and in a good state.

Here is a YAML of redis I’ve been toying around with in kubectl that will provide the initial containers.

apiVersion: apps/v1beta2 # for versions before 1.8.0 use apps/v1beta1
kind: Deployment
metadata:
  name: redis
spec:
  selector:
    matchLabels:
      app: redis
  replicas: 2 # tells deployment to run 2 pods matching the template
  template: # create pods using pod definition in this template
    metadata:
      # unlike pod-nginx.yaml, the name is not included in the meta data as a unique name is
      # generated from the deployment name
      labels:
        app: redis
    spec:
      containers:
      - name: redis
        image: redis:3
        ports:
        - containerPort: 6379
$ kubectl create -f deployments/redis.yaml

Now we’ll use Go to verify the redis deployment exists and all replicas are in a running state.

dClient := clientSet.ExtensionsV1beta1().Deployments("default")

// Get a copy of the current deployment
originalDeployment, err := dClient.Get("redis", metav1.GetOptions{})
if err != nil {
    panic(err)
}

// Verify the current containers in the pod are running
if allRunning, err := podContainersRunning(clientSet, "redis"); !(allRunning && err == nil) {
    panic(fmt.Sprintf("Not all containers are currently running, or err: %s", err))
}

Since we’ve asserted the existing redis deploy is running and available, we now know that

Updating a deployment

Updating a deployment is as easy as updating the fields we’re interested in and resubmitting it to the cluster. The redis tag is intentionally incorrect to simulate an unhealthy deploy.

dClient := client.ExtensionsV1beta1().Deployments("default")

retryErr := retry.RetryOnConflict(retry.DefaultRetry, func() error {
    // Assumes you've already deployed redis before to the cluster
    result, getErr := dClient.Get("redis", metav1.GetOptions{})
    if getErr != nil {
        panic(fmt.Errorf("Failed to get latest version of redis: %s", getErr))
    }

    result.Spec.Template.Spec.Containers[0].Image = "redis:doesntexist"
    _, updateErr := dClient.Update(result)
    return updateErr
})

if retryErr != nil {
    panic(retryErr)
}

Every deployment object returned from client-go includes a resource version indicating the version that cluster has seen. If the redis deployment is updated during our attempt to update the same redis deployment, the server will reject us because our resource versions conflict.

Thankfully, client-go provides a RetryOnConflict utility that debounces conflict errors. On each retry of the deployment, we get a fresh copy of the cluster’s current redis deployment and apply our deployment operation over top of it.

From the examples for RetryOnConflict

//    You have two options to Update() this Deployment:
//
//    1. Modify the "deployment" variable and call: Update(deployment).
//       This works like the "kubectl replace" command and it overwrites/loses changes
//       made by other clients between you Create() and Update() the object.
//    2. Modify the "result" returned by Get() and retry Update(result) until
//       you no longer get a conflict error. This way, you can preserve changes made
//       by other clients between Create() and Update(). This is implemented below
//           using the retry utility package included with client-go. (RECOMMENDED)
//
// More Info:
// https://github.com/kubernetes/community/blob/master/contributors/devel/api-conventions.md#concurrency-control-and-consistency

Thinking of deploys as operations on top of deployment objects naturally leads to abstracting the contents of the operation away from the act of deploying.

if err := deploy(dClient, "redis", func(deployment *apiv1.Deployment) {
    deployment.Spec.Template.Spec.Containers[0].Image = "redis:doesntexist"
}); err != nil {
    panic(err)
}

err = waitForPodContainersRunning(clientSet, "redis")
if err == nil {
    println("Deploy successful")
}
func deploy(dClient v1.DeploymentInterface, app string, op func(deployment *apiv1.Deployment)) error {
    return retry.RetryOnConflict(retry.DefaultRetry, func() error {
        result, err := dClient.Get(app, metav1.GetOptions{})
        if err != nil {
            panic(fmt.Errorf("Failed to get latest version of %s: %s", app, err))
        }

        op(result)

        _, updateErr := dClient.Update(result)
        return updateErr
    })
}

Rolling back a deployment

If a deployment fails, rolling back the operation requires reversing the fields modified during the deployment operation and resubmitting the deploy.

// Try rolling back
if err := deploy(dClient, "redis", func(deployment *apiv1.Deployment) {
    deployment.Spec.Template.Spec.Containers[0].Image = originalDeployment.Spec.Template.Spec.Containers[0].Image
}); err != nil {
    panic(err)
}

err = waitForPodContainersRunning(clientSet, "redis")
if err != nil {
    panic(err)
}
println("Rolled back successfully!")

Notes